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BBC视频:烹饪的历史
标签:食品健康,BBC,中级,英语,健康,食品,烹饪

烹调就是对食物加热,就是把生的食物原料加工成熟食,使食物在加热过程中发生一系列的物理和化学变化。这是将可食性的动植物、菌类等原料进行粗细加工、热处理并科学地投放调味品等烹制菜肴的过程。

烹调有许多方法,最常用的有炸、煮、炒、煎、煨、炖、烤等。但是,不合理的烹调方法,可能损失营养,虽然吃了菜,却仍得不到营养素,甚至患病。但我们现在越来越依赖饭店为我们烹饪食物,为了我们的身体健康和饮食文化传承,我们是不是也该学学烹饪呢?

1. in the first place 起初
原句:But why did we start cooking in the first place, and could the modern world be in danger of losing a whole generation of cooks.
但我们当初为什么开始煮食?这些厨师是否可能在现代世界中绝迹?
例句:To see why rainbows are curved it helps to understand what causes them in the first place.
了解彩虹为什么是弯的可以帮助我们理解他们最初是如何发生的。

2. have no choice but to 只好……,只能……
原句:Animals have no choice but to eat raw food.
动物只能吃生的食物。
例句:We have no choice but to depend on ourselves.
我们必须依靠自己,没有其他选择。

3. keep...at bay 控制,牵制
原句:Salt drives out moisture in the food, keeping bacteria at bay.
盐可除去食物中的水分,防止细菌作用。
例句:Up until this past September, the population of South African was told quite a different story about how to keep AIDS at bay.
直至刚过去的九月,南非人们听说到的关于如何抵御艾滋病却有另一番不同的说法。

4. hang on to sth 保留某物
原句:So if it's that important, you'd think we'd be keen to hang on to it.
如果烹饪那么重要,你可能觉得我们应该坚持烹饪。
例句:You should hang on to those bonds, they'll appreciate considerably.
你切勿卖掉这些债券,它们会很快大幅度上涨的。

FOOD PREPARATION

We're all different.
But food affects us all.
Wherever we live
and whatever we do.
This chef proves that we've come a long way
since the first meal cooked over an open fire.
But why did we start cooking in the first place,
and could the modern world be in danger of losing
a whole generation of cooks.
Animals have no choice but to eat raw food.
But humans have been preparing their food
since pre-historic times.
The main reason is to stop it going off.
Leave fresh food out for any length of time
and this is what happens.
You need something to stop the rot.
Salt drives out moisture in the food,
keeping bacteria at bay.
It can keep food edible for years.
We've even harnessed the power of the sun.
In India they've been leaving food
out to dry for generations.
It not only means
these chillies last longer,
it seems to make them hotter too.
But what about cooked food?
The first time we tasted cooked meat
was probably by accident.
Fires happen all the time in the wild
and our ancestors would have found
plenty of charred remains on the outskirts.
These original barbeques
would have improved the texture
and taste of the food,
as well as making it easier to digest.
Once we mastered fire,
it was a short step to learning to cook for ourselves.
Current estimates place the origin of cooking
at anything up to one and a half million years ago.
And it was about far more than just preserving food.
It may have even radically altered our evolution.
It takes a powerful jaw to tear at raw meat,
and large chunks are difficult to digest.
Cooking allows for smaller bites.
It's a far more effective way of getting protein
into the system.
And this substantial increase
in nutrients would have been crucial
in fuelling our growing mental powers.
Over time,
the methods of cooking evolved too,
until we ended up where we are today.
So if it's that important,
You'd think we'd be keen to hang on to it.
But in the west,
we rely more and more on restaurants
and takeaways to cook our food for us.
We never really need to cook for ourselves anymore.
Generations are growing up
without the most basic skills.
It used to be that we learned
all about cooking at home,
but that's happening less and less.
Top chefs have turned cookery into an art form,
but that's a world away from most of us.
For some beans-on-toast is a major achievement.
So if cooking really did fuel our evolutionary leap
then maybe it's worth taking a few lessons
to remind ourselves just what we're missing.
And the next time you visit a restaurant,
perhaps you should leave the chef a bigger tip.

烹调食物

每个人都是不同的个体
但都受食物影响
不论我们住在哪里
也不论是什么职业
从这位厨师可以看出
人类用火煮食已有很长的历史
但我们当初为什么开始煮食?
这些厨师是否可能在现代世界中绝迹?
动物只能吃生的食物
但人类从史前时代就懂得煮食
主要理由是防止腐败
新鲜食品放置一段时间
就会变成这样
我们需要东西防止腐败
盐可除去食物中的水分
起到防止细菌的作用
可使食物保持数年不坏
我们甚至还利用太阳的力量
印度人很久以前就将食物放在户外干燥
不只能让这些辣椒保存更久
似乎还能使它们更辣
但熟的食物又如何?
我们首次尝到熟肉可能是在意外之下
野外经常起火
我们的老祖先可能是在郊外发现大量焦尸
这种原始烤肉使食物更好吃
同时使食物更易消化
我们会用火之后
很快就学会了煮食
目前推测熟食的起源时间最长可达150万年前
比单纯保存食物久远得多
熟食甚至大幅改变了我们的演化
咬下生肉需要强而有力的下颚
大块肉也不容易消化
煮食可让我们小口进食
蛋白质的吸收效率也会高出许多
营养大幅增加对促进脑力发展
显然也十分重要
经过一段时间
煮食方法也跟着演变
最后就成了现在的状况
如果烹饪那么重要
你可能觉得我们应该坚持烹饪
但在西方,我们越来越依赖餐厅
自己不动手烹饪
我们不需要自己做东西吃
很多人连最基本的烹饪都不会
以往我们是在家中学习烹饪
但现在越来越少
顶尖厨师将烹饪变成艺术
但距离大多数人太过遥远
对某些人而言,做个豆子土司已是很大的成就
如果烹饪确实影响了我们的演化过程
或许该上几堂课
找回我们遗忘的东西
下次你到餐厅时或许应该多给厨师一点小费

【Key Words】
1. edible adj. 可食用的
It can keep food edible for years.
它可使食物保持数年不坏。
2. harness v. 控制,利用(自然力等)
We've even harnessed the power of the sun.
我们甚至还利用太阳的力量。

3. charred adj. 烧焦了的
Fires happen all the time in the wild and our ancestors would have found plenty of charred remains on the outskirts.
野外经常起火,我们的老祖先可能是在郊外发现大量焦尸。

4. barbeque n. 烧烤野餐
These original barbeques would have improved the texture and taste of the food, as well as making it easier to digest.
这种原始烤肉使食物更好吃,同时使食物更易消化。

5. substantial adj. 大量的
And this substantial increase in nutrients would have been crucial in fuelling our growing mental powers.
营养大幅增加对促进脑力发展显然也十分重要。

【More Words】
chilly n. 辣椒
master v. 征服,控制
radically adv. 根本地,彻底地
chunk n. 大块
nutrient n. 营养物,滋养物
takeaway n. 外卖食品
cookery n. 烹饪术
beans-on-toast n. 豆子土司
tip n. 小费

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